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Flavonoid Top Molecule Index Author Index Journals Structure Search Food New Input

Upper classes : FL Flavonoid : FL7 Anthocyani(di)n

3-Deoxyanthocyanin is the only flavonoid in Azolla species (floating ferns). Its reddish color comes from this flavonoid. Palatability of Azolla by snails and tadpoles (and probably fish) is known to negatively correlate with frond deoxyanthocyanin levels[1] Apigeninidin and luteolinidin are known as red pigments of Sorghum vulgare, a grain sorghum cultivar.

  1. Cohen MF. et al. "Feeding deterrence of Azolla in relation to deoxyanthocyanin and fatty acid composition" Aquatic Botany 74:181–187, 2002


Major Plant Families

The number in each family is counted as the number of genera (not species) listed in our registered references. Each reference record is accessible by clicking the link in compound pages. The taxonomy follows the APG-II classification. For details (or if the figure is broken), visit this page.


Patterns of Hydroxylation

The 5th and 6th digits of our flavonoid ID indicates the hydroxylation patterns of A-ring and B-ring (See the upper-right figure. The leftmost ring is A, rightmost is B), respectively. The following chart is spanned by these 2 digits. R indicates H or CH3, and R' indicates H or R. Numbers are IUPAC positions. The value in each cell (such as GS: glycosilation only) corresponds to the 7th and 8th digits, which is explained at the bottom of this page.

Details of the 3rd Class: Hydroxylation pattern of A and B rings (5th and 6th digits)

Position of -OH (-OCH3) groups
      6th digit →
5th digit ↓

FL A.png FL B.png FL C.png FL D.png FL E.png FL F.png FL G.png FL H.png FL I.png FL J.png FL K.png FL L.png FL 8.png FL 9.png
 A (13 pages)  B (0 pages)  C (15 pages)  D (1 pages)  E (0 pages)  F (0 pages)  G (1 pages)  H (0 pages)  I (0 pages)  J (0 pages)  K (0 pages)  L (0 pages)  8 (0 pages)  9 (0 pages)
FL A .png  A (21 pages)  GO (4 pages) GS (4 pages) NS (1 pages)  GO (5 pages) GS (5 pages) NS (1 pages)  NS (1 pages)
FL B .png  B (1 pages)  NS (1 pages)
FL C .png  C (1 pages)  NS (1 pages)
FL D .png  D (0 pages)
FL E .png  E (4 pages)  NS (2 pages)  NS (2 pages)
FL F .png  F (0 pages)
FL G .png  G (0 pages)
FL 1 .png  1 (3 pages)  NS (2 pages)
FL 2 .png  2 (0 pages)
FL 3 .png  3 (0 pages)
FL 4 .png  4 (0 pages)
FL 9 .png  9 (0 pages)

Abbreviations used in the above chart

First Characters 

N not glycosylated; G O-glycoside; C C-glycoside; D both glycosides;

Second Characters 

S not modified; M alkylated; I prenylated; R cyclic-prenylated; F furanoFL; P pyranoFL; D furano and pyranoFL; N phenylpropanoid; C others;

Special Second Character only for Anthycyanin (FL7) 

A Galactosylated; L Glucosylated; O modified with other sugars;

Other Unusual Patterns

These types are not classified in the above chart.

Quinone  QU (0 pages) alpha-Hydroxy  HX (0 pages) beta-Hydroxy  HY (0 pages) Peltogynoid  PT (0 pages)
Retrocalchone  RT (0 pages) Dehydro-backbone  WX (0 pages) Additional rings  RN (0 pages) Others  UN (1 pages)
Pyranoanthocyanin (FL7 only)  RX (0 pages)

Patterns of Glycosylation

The 7th and 8th digits of the flavonoid ID indicates the glycosylation, and other modification patterns, respectively. The following chart is spanned by these 2 digits. The value in each cell (such as AA for the standard form) corresponds to the 5th and 6th digits.

Details of the 4th Class: Glycosylation patterns (7th and 8th digits)
      7th digit →
8th digit ↓
No glycosylation  N (13 pages) O-glycoside  G (18 pages) C-glycoside  C (0 pages) O- & C-glycoside  D (0 pages)
no modification  S (22 pages)  1C (2 pages) 1D (1 pages) AA (1 pages) AC (1 pages) AG (1 pages) BA (1 pages) CA (1 pages) EA (2 pages) EC (2 pages) UN (1 pages)  AA (4 pages) AC (5 pages)
alkylated  M (0 pages)
prenylated  I (0 pages)
cyclic prenylated  R (0 pages)
furano FL  F (0 pages)
pyrano FL  P (0 pages)
furano & pyrano FL  D (0 pages)
prenylpropanoid  N (0 pages)
others  C (0 pages)
3-Gal related A N.A. N.A. N.A.
3-Glc related L N.A. N.A. N.A.
other sugar at 3 O N.A.  AA (4 pages) AC (5 pages) N.A. N.A.

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