Doc:Scientific name

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What is Scientific name?

Scientific name (informally referred to as Latin name) is the formal system for naming species under the guideline by International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Each name is written as two Latin words, a genus name and a specific name or epithet, followed by the (for plants, abbreviated) surname of the reporting scientist. For animals, abbreviation is not allowed. This binomial nomenclature was proposed by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778).

Plant Classification (分類体系)

All taxonomy systems try to reflect the trace of evolution. There are 3 major systems. (For others see this Wikipedia page.

The Engler System
Proposed by a German taxonomist, Adolf Engler (1844-1930). He considered plants evolved from simpler to more complex forms, such as from achlamydeous, monochlamydeous, schizopetalous, then to gamopetalous.
The Cronquist System
Proposed by Arthur Cronquist in 1988. He considered hermaphrodite flowers with multiple perianth, stamens and pistils as the most primitive style. The overall classification is based on the form of stamens.
The APG System
Proposed by a group of scientists in 1998, it is based on the phylogenetic tree of mitochondrial DNA sequences in chloroplasts. APG is the name of the scientists' group. Many species are still unclassified.

Names with + or X

Names with + at the beginning
They are grafted species between different genera.
Example. +Laburnocytisus C. K. Schneid.Laburnum anagyroides is grafted with Cytisus purpureus.
Names with X at the beginning
They are hybrids between different genera.
Example. x Aeridachnis Hort. → Hybrids between genera [Aerides x Arachnis 1966] in Orchidaceae.

References (参考資料)


The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (Series Ed. Kubitzki, Klaus) Springer Verlag
Expensive 9 volume set, but it is a remarkably reliable encyclopedia following the APG-II system. A must-buy set for plant taxonomists.
The Cross Name Index to Medicinal Plants (by Anthony R. Torkelson) CRC Press (Boca Raton New York)
Also expensive 4 volume set. It covers common names (volume 1 and 2), scientific names (volume 3) and indian plants (volume 4). It is bound in overly expensive covers and uses large fonts. The same information could have been organized in much less pages. The most disadvantage is that the most up-to-date scientific names are unknown. It just lists many alternative names.


Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey (GBIF)
The site uses an original GBIF_ID to check species.
Very slow site but you can track taxonomies of plants and animals altogether with photos, geographic information and references. One of the most informative sites.
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI)
The official site for plant names.
Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
UniProtKB taxonomy data
Plant taxonomy by UniProt (genome-based taxonomy).
国立国会図書館 植物学名の調べ方
千葉大学・BG Plants 和名−学名インデックス/米倉浩司・梶田忠 (2003-)

University of Melbourne > Multiscript Plant Name Database > Sorting Medicinal plants
植物種名のマルチリンガル・データベース。日本語・ベンガル語・ヒンディ語・中国語に対応。「Sorting Medicinal plants」のページあり。
FRLHT's - Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants

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